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Thursday, July 9, 2020 | History

2 edition of Consequences of limiting benzene content of motor gasoline. found in the catalog.

Consequences of limiting benzene content of motor gasoline.

Concawe. Ad Hoc Group on Effects of Limitations on Gasoline Benzene Content.

Consequences of limiting benzene content of motor gasoline.

by Concawe. Ad Hoc Group on Effects of Limitations on Gasoline Benzene Content.

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  • 21 Currently reading

Published by CONCAWE .
Written in English


Edition Notes

SeriesReport no 13/83
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20698996M

Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C 6 H benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.. Benzene is a natural constituent of crude oil and is one of the elementary g point: °C ( °F; K). A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs.

@article{osti_, title = {Refiners have several options for reducing gasoline benzene}, author = {Goelzer, A.R. and Hernandez-Robinson, A. and Ram, S. and Chin, A.A. and Harandi, M.N. and Smith, C.M.}, abstractNote = {Although the linkage between gasoline benzene content and evaporative, running, and tailpipe emission is not yet defined, the U.S. Clean Air Act . Wong O, Raabe GK. Multiple myeloma and benzene exposure in a multinational cohort of more than , petroleum workers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. Oct; 26 (2)– Nilsson RI, Nordlinder RG, Tagesson C, Walles S, Järvholm BG. Genotoxic effects in workers exposed to low levels of benzene from by:

  EPA also said that the aromatic content of gasoline has fallen 20 percent since , “more than twice what one would expect based just . Malcom Pirnie Inc. () Steady-State, 2-D transport from a gasoline pool. First-order decay of benzene when C EtOH gasoline (up to 3 gpd) to a growing NAPL pool at the water table. First-order decay of ethanol and Size: KB.


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Consequences of limiting benzene content of motor gasoline by Concawe. Ad Hoc Group on Effects of Limitations on Gasoline Benzene Content. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Benzene is found in the air from emissions from burning coal and oil, gasoline service stations, and motor vehicle exhaust. Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure of humans to benzene may cause drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, as well as eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation, and, at high levels, unconsciousness.

a 1% v01 benzene limit. The aromatic content of gasoline from simple refineries could only be reduced by some 5 percentage points through the additional use of oxygenates and isomerization, resulting in average aromatics levels still exceeding 40% vol.

Further aromatics reduction in simple refineries would result in yield losses of up to half or. Long-term health effects of exposure to benzene. The major effect of benzene from long-term exposure is on the blood. (Long-term exposure means exposure of a year or more.) Benzene causes harmful effects on the bone marrow and can cause a decrease in red blood cells, leading to anemia.

Nowadays, gasoline contains mostly (55–77%) saturated hydrocarbons, 9–36% aromatics, some unsaturated hydrocarbons, less than 10% ethanol (US EPA, b), and the benzene content has been reduced (as described later). While the compositions of pure biodiesel and ethanol fuels are well known, information regarding the compositions of the Cited by: As early as the American Petroleum Institute (API) published the guideline that the only absolutely safe level from exposure to benzene was zero.

Despite this, in the USA, gasoline has contained an average of about % benzene for the past two decades, but has reportedly reached 5% by volume historically (Infante et al., ).Infante et al.

have noted that gasolines. The rule puts a ceiling on the total benzene content of any gasoline produced after The rule limits opportunities for those refineries that are not meeting the benzene limit to meet their obligation by buying credits from other refineries whose gasoline more than meets the : Felicity Barringer.

If you are concerned about benzene, there are several ways you can limit your exposure. Stay away from cigarette smoke. If you are a smoker, try to quit. Cigarette smoke is a major source of benzene exposure.

Try to limit gasoline fumes by pumping gas carefully and using gas stations with vapor recovery systems that capture the fumes. The effects on your health depend on how much benzene you are exposed to and. for how long.

As with other organic solvents, immediate effects of a single exposure to a high. concentration (hundreds of ppm and more) can include: headache; tiredness; nausea; dizziness. Benzene can also cause unconsciousness if exposure is very high (thousands of. ppm).File Size: KB.

These regulations set limits for the amount of benzene contained in gasoline and prohibit the sale of gasoline having a concentration of more than % benzene by volume. They also set limits for the benzene emissions number which relates gasoline composition to predicted emissions of benzene from gasoline-powered vehicles.

BENZENE IN PETROL. Over the past 50 years, benzene levels in petroleum derived motor spirit have varied considerably, depending on the refining processes used.

In the s, s and s, the benzene content of marketed petrol’s has ranged from percent to 30 percent by volume but since the s has averaged 23 percent. The storage, transportation, distribution, dispensing, sale or use of gasoline, motor fuels, or other fuels containing benzene subsequent to its final discharge from bulk wholesale storage facilities, except that operations where gasoline or motor fuels are dispensed for more than 4 hours per day in an indoor location are covered by this section.

Economic consequences of limiting benzene/aromatics in gasoline 21 Jul This report records the economic consequences to four different types of refineries in Europe if the benzene content of gasoline is required to be limited to 3% v01 or 1% vol.

The consequences of also setting limits on aromatics content are also investigated. • Benzene can dissolve in water up to grams per liter. This is equivalent to ml/l. • Benzene vapor is times as dense as air. • Benzene levels while pumping gasoline into a car: 11 ppm right next to the pump, down to ppb 5 feet away.8 • Benzene is found in cigarette smoke 9 at concentrations in the neighborhood of 50 to File Size: 3MB.

Ghana has revised the motor gasoline standard to reflect 1%v/v benzene and 35%v/v maximum volatile aromatic compounds, the absence of permissible exposure limit for BTEX compounds makes it necessary to monitor these compounds to instigate policy for awareness and BTEX expo-sure minimization.

A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN. Human exposure to benzene has been associated with a range of acute and long-term adverse health effects and diseases, including cancer and aplastic anaemia.

Exposure can occur occupationally and domestically as a result of the ubiquitous use of benzene-containing petroleum products, including motor fuels and solvents. Regulations limiting the concentration of benzene and the total aromatic content of finished gasoline have been established for and beyond in order to reduce the ozone reactivity and toxicity of automotive evaporative and exhaust emissions.

Test methods to determine benzene and the aromatic content of gasoline are necessary to assess product quality and to meet. Since it accounts for about 35 vol% of the gasoline pool, it is important to know what affects the cat cracker gasoline benzene levels. The benzene content in the FCC gasoline can be reduced by: Short contact time in the riser and in the reactor dilute phase.

– Seventeen states ban or significantly limit the use of MTBE in gasoline pools. The BTEX Complex. The BTEX complex is a hydrocarbon mixture of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethyl-benzene.

Commonly referred to as gasoline aromatics, these compounds are refined from low-octane petroleum products into a high-octane gasoline additive.

Benzene levels in the air can be elevated by emissions from burning coal and oil, benzene waste and storage operations, motor vehicle exhaust, and evaporation from gasoline service stations. Tobacco smoke is another source of benzene in air, particularly indoors.

The effect of removing benzene by gasoline component on pool benzene content and benzene production, are shown in Figure Removing % benzene from reformate would lower pool content from % to %, and increase benzene production billion gallons per year.

Regulations for Gasoline Standards This section contains the applicable statutes, federal regulations and state standards for the gasoline programs. Learn more about.•Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon produced in the Earth’s atmosphere and is found in air due to emissions from the burning of coal and oil and also from gas stations, and from motor vehicle exhaust •It is used in the manufacture of plastics, detergents, pesticides, and other.The amount of benzene in gasoline is a concern because it is a known human carcinogen, and exposure to it has been linked to detrimental health effects.

The challenge with the analysis lies in the complex composition of gasoline, which consists of hundreds of different compounds.